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It therefore becomes clear that a full and complete knowledge of the workings of the two projects is not necessary: the purpose of both projects is to produce usable, but not preservationgrade, digital surrogates to offer mass access to the materials being digitized.
, however, is not defined merely by the quality of the image scan, but also by the way in which digital materials are made available to their target communities.
It debuted to a fanfare of openness and transparency about its processes, with many calling it the final democratization of the worlds knowledge.
The popular press, as well as the academic community wide and far, has portrayed the two projects as polar opposites, criticizing Google’s shroud of secrecy over its book scanning operation, while lauding the OCA as a model of transparency and openness.
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Kalev Leetaru is Coordinator of Information Technology and Research at the University of Illinois Cline Center for Democracy, Chief Technology Advisor to the Illinois Center for Computing in the Humanities, Arts, and Social Science, and Center Affiliate of the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.
Among his research areas is the intersection of digital technologies and information management and he has recently completed a book manuscript on commodity access digitization.
Further, significant concerns are raised about the longterm sustainability of the OCA rights model, its metadata management, and its transparency that must be addressed as OCA moves forward.
Images are output in RAW or extended TIFF format, preserving all of the detail captured by the image sensor.
Lens assemblies are designed to very precise optical standards and, in many cases, custom designed for a specific type of imaging application.
Google guarantees archival resolution output files, but given its use of area array capture technology, it too must acquiesce to variable capture resolution, relying on software image processing to convert to archival files.
Preservation digitization, on the other hand, uses linear array technology or extremely specialized mediumformat area array units with very exacting quality specifications.However, once it had been shown that such mass access campaigns were not only possible, but could be quite successful, the academic community reacted by forming its own initiative, the Open Content Alliance (OCA), which was announced in October 2005 (Kahle, 2005).Unease about corporate ownership over the digital copies of historic works led the OCA to declare that all of its digitized works would be available for unrestricted use.Lighting and color are sampled at every frame and, depending on material characteristics, variablesource lighting is used to image the work from multiple angles and using multiple spectrums.