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Although the battle itself was inconclusive, the Union Army's repulse of two Confederate attacks and the subsequent Confederate withdrawal were a much-needed boost to Union morale after the defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg, and it dashed Confederate aspirations for control of Middle Tennessee. Bragg reorganized his army, and Kirby Smith left for East Tennessee. The only troops available for such an assault were Breckinridge's, and Bragg ordered him to cross the river, but Breckinridge moved slowly.
Hardee, followed by that of Leonidas Polk, overran the wing commanded by Maj. After the Battle of Perryville in Kentucky on October 8, 1862, Confederate Gen. Although Bragg's newly combined force was up to 38,000 veteran troops, he made no effort to regain the initiative. Frustrated with his prospects in Kentucky and low on supplies, Bragg withdrew fully from Kentucky through the Cumberland Gap, passed through Knoxville and Chattanooga, turned northwest, and eventually stopped in Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Although Rosecrans had reported his army to have 81,729 effectives in Nashville, his force on the march was barely more than half of that since he needed to protect his base and supply lines from the harassment of the Confederate cavalry. The Union line was stabilized by the strong leadership of Rosecrans and by the rallying of the divisions under Johnson and Davis.
All through the war it was a center for strong Confederate sentiment, and Bragg and his men were warmly welcomed and entertained during the month of December. Hardee noted afterward that "The field of battle offered no particular advantages for defense." Despite this, Bragg was reluctant to move farther south, say to the arguably more defensible Duck River Valley, or farther north, to Stewart's Creek, where Rosecrans thought Bragg would defend.
Murfreesboro was a small town in the Stones River Valley, a former state capital named for a colonel in the American Revolutionary War, Hardy Murfree.
Two more brigades arrived, and they were sent in, reinforced by other elements of Polk's corps. Thomas responded with a limited counterattack that cleared his front. Bragg's plan had had a fundamental flaw: although his objective was to cut Rosecrans's line of communication (the Nashville Pike), his attack drove the Union defenders to concentrate at that point.
Bragg's biographer, Grady Mc Whiney, observed: Unless the Union army collapsed at the first onslaught, it would be pushed back into a tighter and stronger defensive position as the battle continued, while the Confederate forces would gradually lose momentum, become disorganized, and grow weaker.
While Rosecrans was preparing in Nashville, Bragg ordered Col. Mc Cook, anticipating the next day would begin with a major attack by Crittenden, planted numerous campfires in his area, hoping to deceive the Confederates as to his strength on that flank, and to disguise the fact that his flank was not anchored on an obstacle (the nearby Overall Creek). Hardee struck first, attacking the Union's right flank with the division of Maj. They had captured 28 guns and over 3,000 Union soldiers. Breckinridge, on the east side of the river, did not realize that Crittenden's early morning attack had been withdrawn. Breckinridge, but the troops were slow in arriving and their multiple piecemeal attacks failed. The relatively small battle that followed Morgan's surprise attack was an embarrassing Union defeat, resulting in many captured Union supplies and soldiers. Northern musicians played "Yankee Doodle" and "Hail, Columbia" and were answered by "Dixie" and "The Bonnie Blue Flag." Finally, one band started playing "Home! At about that time, Bragg received a false report that a strong Union force was moving south along the Lebanon Turnpike in his direction. The Battle of Hartsville, at a crossing point on the Cumberland River about 40 miles (64 km) upstream from Nashville (north of Murfreesboro) was an incident in Morgan's raid to the north, before Rosecrans had the bulk of his infantry forces on the move. The armies bivouacked only 700 yards (640 m) from each other, and their bands started a musical battle that became a non-lethal preview of the next day's events. Thousands of Northern and Southern soldiers sang the sentimental song together across the lines. When Bragg ordered him to attack to his front—so that some use could be made of his corps—Breckinridge moved forward and was embarrassed to find out that there were no Union troops opposing him. He did not begin his march in pursuit of Bragg until December 26. However, Crittenden—facing Breckinridge on the Union left—failed to notify Mc Cook (on the Union right) of these troop movements. Mc Cook, consisted of the divisions: At dawn on December 31, about 6 a.m., Confederate William J. While Sheridan's men slowed the enemy advance, they did it at heavy cost to themselves; all three of Sheridan's brigade commanders were killed that day, and more than one third of his men were casualties in four hours of fighting in a cedar forest surrounded on three sides that became known as "The Slaughter Pen." By 10 a.m., many of the Confederate objectives had been achieved.
However, Rosecrans took ample time to reorganize and train his forces (particularly his cavalry) and resupply his army. Bragg's forces were situated with Leonidas Polk's corps on the west side of the river, and William J. He had expected Rosecrans to attack on December 30, but when that did not happen, his plan was to drive Hardee's corps and the cavalry under Brig. Rosecrans intended to have Crittenden cross the river and attack the heights east of the river, which would be an excellent artillery platform to bombard the entire Confederate lines. The second Confederate wave was by Polk's corps, consisting of the divisions of Maj. Cheatham's assault was sluggish and piecemeal; observers claimed he had been drinking heavily and was unable to command his units effectively.
The Battle of Stones River (also known as the Second Battle of Murfreesboro) was a battle fought from December 31, 1862, to January 2, 1863, in Middle Tennessee, as the culmination of the Stones River Campaign in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. Rosecrans's Army of the Cumberland marched from Nashville, Tennessee, on December 26, 1862, to challenge General Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee at Murfreesboro. Braxton Bragg's Army of Mississippi withdrew to Harrodsburg, Kentucky, where it was joined by Maj. His army, joined with Smith's Army of Kentucky and together renamed the Army of Tennessee as of November 20, took up a defensive position northwest of the city along the West Fork of the Stones River. Stevenson to Mississippi to assist in the defense of Vicksburg. The new line was roughly perpendicular to the original line, in a small half oval with its back to the river.